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Izindaba Zezimboni Zamakhemikhali

Ikhaya>Izindaba>Izindaba Zezimboni Zamakhemikhali

Uhambo olude lukakotini lokuya ekucutshungulweni kwamakhemikhali

Isikhathi: 2021-10-08 Ukushaya: 141

Ukotini uyinto endala kakhulu yokucubungula izindwangu, kodwa kusukela ngesikhathi ukhiwa esihlahleni sikakotini, kufanele uhambe uhambo olude lokucutshungulwa kwamakhemikhali.

Usayizi wempahla:

Ukotini uthathwa nje njengebhola likakotini futhi awukwazi ukwenziwa izingubo ngqo. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi izingubo zenziwa ngokusika nokuthunga ndawonye indwangu, eyakhiwe umucu owodwa wentambo, wona owenziwe umucu owodwa wentambo.

Sidinga ukukama amabhola kakotini abe yifayibha kakotini eyodwa ngokusebenzisa umshini wendwangu, kodwa imicu kakotini mihle kangangokuthi iphuka kalula ngesikhathi sokudonsa komshini futhi ayikho indlela yokulukwa endwangu. Isendlalelo se-soa sokulinganisa (i-modified starch size + PVA polyvinyl alcohol, CMC carboxymethyl cellulose, PA polyacrylate) idinga ukufakwa entanjeni ukuyinikeza ifilimu evikelayo ukuvimbela ukuphuka, kanye nokugcina ubunwele bentambo buseduze nemicu. , kunciphisa ukungqubuzana nokuthuthukisa ikhwalithi yentambo.

Lapho inqwaba yezintambo zikakotini sezakhiwe zaba ucezu olulodwa lwendwangu kakotini, kufanele ithunyelwe embonini yokunyathelisa nokudaya ukuze icutshungulwe.

Indwangu ngokuvamile ihamba ezinyathelweni ezi-3: ukwelashwa kwangaphambili - ukudaya - ukuqeda

Ukwelashwa kwangaphambili:

Ukunamathisela kunenzuzo lapho weluka, kodwa kuyingozi lapho udaywa. Lapho ingaphezulu le-fiber limbozwe ngokuqinile yifilimu ye-pulp, udayi awukwazi ukungena ngaphakathi kwefayibha ukuze uwudaye futhi kuyadingeka ukwelapha i-pulp ngaphambi kokudaya okulandelayo.

Ngakho-ke kufanele sisebenzise i-hotcaustic soda i-NaOH ukuncibilikisa udaka lube usawoti wesodium oncibilikayo emanzini, kanye ne-someJFC permeate (i-fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether) ukusiza ukuyincibilikisa kangcono. Lesi sinyathelo sibizwa nge-desizing.

Ukotini utshalwa ngokwemvelo, ngakho uqukethe ukungcola okuningi, okuhlanganisa i-pectin, ama-wax, ama-cottonseed hulls, usawoti we-inorganic, i-pigments, umlotha, izinto ze-nitrogen nokunye. Lokhu kungcola kubangela ukuthi igciwane likakotini libe phuzi futhi limbozwe ngamakhoba embewu kakotini amnyama.

isithombe 

Khona-ke kuyadingeka ukwengeza i-oxidising ejenti i-hydrogen peroxide H2O2 ukuze ushise umbala, futhi ngesikhathi esifanayo ukususa ama-hulls embewu kakotini emnyama, i-caustic soda i-NaOH ne-sodium bisulphite NaHSO3 yengezwa ukuze isabele ngamaqembu e-phenolic hydroxyl ku-lignin ukuze kukhiqizwe okuphuma kuyo. ancibilika kalula ku-alkali. Lesi sinyathelo sibizwa ngokuthi ukucwenga i-bleaching.

Inani le-caustic soda elikhangisiwe noma elidliwe yi-100 g ye-cotton fiber 

Inani le-caustic soda elikhangisiwe noma elidliwe yi-100 g ye-cotton fiber

Inani le-caustic soda elimuncwa noma elidliwe/g

I-Pectin

0.2-0.3

Izinto ezine-nitrogen

1.0

Izinto ezine-waxy (ama-fatty acids)

0.1

Amaqembu e-Carboxyl kumafayibha

0.2-0.3

I-100g ye-fiber yokulungisa i-soda

1.0-2.0

Ubude

2.5-3.7

Ngoba i-hydrogen peroxide kalula catalyzed by ion zensimbi yensimbi nethusi emanzini kwenzeke ukubola kungasebenzi, ukuze indwangu kakotini umbungu hhayi nje kuphela bleached kodwa futhi ngenxa yokusabela enobudlova futhi enze izimbobo indwangu, kanjalo futhi. addsodium silicate Na2SiO3, EDTA, sodium hexametaphosphate ukuze adsorb la ma-ion ensimbi ukuvimbela ukwenzeka kwe-ion yensimbi ye-catalytic phenomenon.

Ukudaya.

Odayi bahluke ngokuphelele kumbala, futhi yisibopho esiqinile phakathi kwedayi nengubo eqinisekisa ukuthi umbala awuphumi ekuwashweni kwansuku zonke nokuthi umbala osembathweni awumngcolisi umuntu.

Inhlanganisela ye-pigment ne-fiber yokudweba nokubhala ayifuni kangako; kwanele ukuba nombala.

Kunezinhlobo ezintathu zodayi ezivame ukusetshenziselwa imicu kakotini: odayi abaqondile, odayi abasebenzayo kanye nodayi abanciphisayo. Zonke zibophezela ku-cotton fiber ngezindlela ezahlukene.

Odayi abaqondile: abakhokhiswe kabi, kuyilapho imicu kakotini nayo ishajwa kabi ezixazululweni ezinamanzi ngenxa yokuthi aqukethe amaqembu amaningi e-hydroxyl-OH kanye ne-carboxylic acid - COOH, okuholela ekwandeni. Ngakho-ke kuyadingeka ukwengeza i-Sodium sulfate Na2SO4, ene-radius encane ye-ionic futhi ekhokhiswe kahle, ukuze kuncishiswe izakhiwo zikagesi futhi kuncishiswe ukuxoshwa kwe-mutual charge, bese i-dyestuff eqondile incike kumandla ayo e-van der Waals kanye nezibopho ze-hydrogen ukuze bopha eduze nezintambo zikakotini.

纤维素电荷图 

Odayi abasebenzayo: ababuye baziwe ngokuthi odayi abasebenzayo, lawa madayi anamaqoqo e-vinylsulfone kanye ne-homotriazine kuwo, womabili angashintshwa nge-hydroxyl-OH ku-cellulose ukuze akhiqize ibhondi eqinile ye-covalent. Kodwa-ke, ukusabela kokushintsha kufanele kube cishe ku-pH: 11 ukuze usabele ngokugcwele, i-sodium carbonate Na2CO3 idinga ukwengezwa ukuze ijwayele i-pH ye-alkaline.

Odayi abancishisiwe: Ngokuvamile baqinile, ngakho-ke ayikho indlela yokuwadaya ngokuqondile emiculweni kakotini, ngakho-ke kufanele sengeze i-Sodium dithionite (i-sodium hydrosulfite) ne-Rongalit powder (i-sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate) ukuze siphendule odayi abancishisiwe babe usawoti wesodium oncibilikayo, engase incibilikiswe emanzini bese idayilwa emiculweni, bese ifakwa emoyeni ukuze isebenzise umoya-mpilo noma ingeze i-hydrogen peroxide H202 ukuze iphinde i-oxidise usawoti we-sodium oyimfihlakalo Ukudaya bese kuqedwa ngokufaka kabusha udayi ophindaphindayo kudayi oncibilikayo ongancibiliki. umoya noma ngokwengeza i-hydrogen peroxide H202.

Ukunciphisa odayi akuncibiliki ngaphansi kwezimo ezijwayelekile, ngakho-ke kunzima kakhulu ukulahlekelwa umbala.

Ngemuva kokudaya, kusekhona inani elikhulu lombala ontantayo ebusweni bendwangu kakotini, ngakho-ke inani elikhulu lezinto ezixubene ne-surfactant liyadingeka ukuze kugezwe lolu ungqimba lombala ontantayo futhi kuvinjwe umbala ohlanziwe ukuthi ungaphinde ungcolise indwangu, ngakho-ke izinhlobonhlobo zama-surfactants ahlukene zidinga ukusetshenziselwa ukuhlanganisa ukugeza futhi.

Ngemuva kokugeza, kuyadingeka ukusebenzisa i-ejenti yokulungisa umbala ongasebenzi (i-quaternary ammonium salt compound), engasabela futhi ihlanganiswe nodayi, iyenze ingancibiliki kakhulu noma imboze ingaphezulu lengubo ngqo ngefilimu, okwenza kube nzima udayi. ukuphuma.

Ngokungezwa kwe-ejenti yokulungisa umbala, ukuthuthukiswa kokushesha uma kuqhathaniswa nombala ongenalutho kuyabonakala.

Ukuqedwa kokuthunyelwe:

Izindwangu zonke zenziwe ngezintambo, kodwa izakhiwo zendwangu ≠ izakhiwo zemicu ngokwazo.

Amaphrinta nama-dyers angafaka izindwangu kusixazululo se-afluorocarbon polymer futhi, ngokusebenzisa inqubo ethile yokubhaka, angenza izindwangu zikakotini zixoshe amanzi, njengoba ngichaza kulesi sihloko (iziphi izincibilikisi ezimbili eziphilayo ezinganyibiliki ngokufanayo futhi zombili ezingancibiliki emanzini?)

Lokhu kuthuthukisa ukusebenza kwezindwangu futhi kwaziwa embonini yethu njengezinsiza zokuphrinta nokudaya.

Umuzwa wengubo uzowohloka ngokuwasha okuningi ngoba nje isithambisi sengubo sizokwehla ngokuwasha okuningi.

Izithambisi ezivamile zihlanganisa izithambisa ze-cationic nezithambiso ze-silicone. Ama-Cationic surfactants nawo ayizithako eziyinhloko ku-conditioner yezinwele, athembele ikakhulukazi kuma-agent we-hydrophobic ukuze anamathisele kumafayibha kanye namaqembu e-hydrophilic ane-cationic charge exoshana ukuze kuncishiswe ukungqubuzana.

Umphumela wokuthambisa uwoyela we-silicone uzogqama nakakhulu, njengoba amandla adingekayo ukuze kujikelezwe ibhondi ye-silicone ye-Si-O emafutheni e-silicone cishe iqanda, futhi amaqembu amabili e-methyl kuwoyela we-dimethyl silicone nawo athatha indawo enkulu. , okuvumela imicu ukuba yandise ibanga ukusuka komunye nomunye, ngaleyo ndlela ithuthukise ukuthamba.

isithombe 

Ifomula yesakhiwo sawoyela we-Silicone

Ingangeni manzi, ithambile, ishintsha umbala, i-antibacterial, iphunga elimnandi, i-flame retardant, anti-mbimbi, imhlophe, imnyama, isisindo somzimba, i-fluorescent, isixosha omiyane, njll., kuphela ongeke ukucabange, cha awukwazi ukukwenza, futhi lokhu konke kungafezwa ngokungeza izithasiselo ezihlukene zokuphrinta nokudaya.

Xhumana nathi

Sijoyine futhi ube owokuqala ukwazi ngemikhiqizo yethu yakamuva kanye nokukhushulwa.

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